Zachidziwitso zazing'ono za aluminiyamu

zowunikira zimakupatsani chidziwitso cha zinthu zachilengedwe zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mitundu yambiri. Aluminiyamu imawonedwa ngati zinthu zabwino. Ndiwachilengedwe, wowoneka bwino, wolimba komanso wochezeka. Mutha kupeza aluminiyumu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira can, botolo ndi zinthu zina zambiri. Nayi mfundo zosangalatsa za aluminiyamu…

Mwina, simukanayenera kudziwa izi :

Zaka zopitilira zana limodzi zapitazo, kilo wa aluminiyamu adadula ma ruble chikwi chimodzi.

Mu 1899, asayansi aku Britain adapatsa Dmitrii Mendeleev masikelo, opangidwa ndi golide ndi aluminiyamu. Tsopano, kilogalamu yachitsulo ichi imawononga ndalama zochepa kuposa ruble. Pa theka loyamba la zaka zathu, kupanga zitsulo za aluminiyamu padziko lonse zawonjezeka kuposa nthawi 250, pakadali pano zikufika pafupifupi mamiliyoni 5; malinga ndi voliyumu, kupanga zitsulo za aluminium kumakhala lachiwiri pambuyo pakupanga chitsulo.

Aluminiyamu imakhala yopepuka kuposa nthawi ziwiri ndi ziwiri kuposa zitsulo, nthawi 3 - mkuwa, nthawi 4 - siliva. Pa kutentha wamba, zitsulo zotayidwa sizichita dzimbiri m'madzi, sizikuyenda mlengalenga, ndipo zimakana mphamvu ya nayitrogeni, sulfure, kaboni; chitsulo chidakutidwa ndi filmnestideide oxide kinga film. Amakumana ndi ma halojeni, caustic alkalis, sulfuric ndi hydrochloric acid, ndikupanga mchere. Imakhala yokhazikika pamayankho a acetic ndi phosphoric acid, koma imawonongedwa ndi madzi ammonia. Chidutswa cha aluminiyamu, choviikidwa mu nitric acid, chimayamba kugonjetsedwa ndi mapangidwe ankhondo.

Chitsulo choyera ngati buluu, chimasungunuka pa 660 ° C, chimafikira mu waya (waya wamtali wa 10,000m imalemera 270g yokha ndipo imatha kukwana mu bokosi lamasewera) ndikugudika mosavuta kukhala ma sheet osiyanasiyana.

Kuyika limodzi ndi zitsulo zochepa (ndipo kumapanga ma alloys ndi zitsulo zonse) kumachulukitsa mphamvu ya aluminiyamu. Kuphatikiza mitundu yopitilira 200 imadziwika, ndipo chiwerengero chawo chikuchulukirachulukira chaka chilichonse, ndipo mtunduwo ukupita patsogolo. Ntchito yayikulu kwambiri ndi duralumin, yomwe kuphatikiza ndi aluminiyamu muli pafupifupi 5% mkuwa, magnesium ndi chitsulo. Silumini (4-12% silicon), lautal (4% mkuwa, 2% titanium), scleron - aluminiyamu ya aluminiyamu ndi mkuwa, nickel, manganese, silicon ndi lithiamu amadziwika kwambiri pamakampani.

Aluminiyamu ndi ma alo ake adathandizira munthu kuti agonjetse mawonekedwe amlengalenga, kupanga magalimoto oyendetsa njanji zazitali komanso zolimba ndi sitima zapamadzi. Ndizosadabwitsa kuti zitsulo za aluminiyumu nthawi zambiri zimatchedwa chitsulo chamapiko. Mapiko ndi fuselages a ndege, magalimoto, mafelemu a nyumba zodziwika bwino, mipando, mabedi, matebulo ndi zinthu zina zambiri amapangidwa ndi aluminiyamu ndi ma alo ake. Ku England kokha, pambuyo pa nkhondo, nyumba zopangira ma aluminiyamu zoposa 70,000 zinamangidwa. Nyumba zamasukulu zikumapangidwanso kumeneko kuchokera ku aluminiyamu. Nyumba zazikulu zopangidwa ndi aluminiyamu (ndi pulasitiki) zidamangidwa ku Moscow - Palace of Congresses ku Kremlin ndi Palace of Pioneers ku Lenin Hills.

Aluminiyamu amafunikira ndi amagetsi, ma dyers. Ngakhale magetsi ake ali pafupi kutalikirana ndi mkuwa, mawayilesi a aluminiyumu alowa m'malo mwa mkuwa. Ndi m'lifupi mwake womwe umapereka magetsi ofanana, iwo ndi owala kawiri kuposa mkuwa. Aluminiyamu yodzaza ndi gawo la utoto wambiri.

Tsamba loonda la aluminiyamu litatenthetsedwa mpaka 3 mpaka ma microni wandiweyani, limawalira ndi lawi loyera lowala bwino, ndikupanga kutentha kwakukulu. Kugwiritsa ntchito aluminiyumu kujambula zithunzi zopanda pake kumayikidwa pamalowo (kung'anima kwa magnesium nthawi zonse kumatulutsa kuwala koyera). Kuti athandizire ojambula, nyali zapadera zimapangidwa ndi zidutswa za aluminiyumu zojambulazo ndi waya woonda kwambiri, woyatsa kwambiri. Mukayatsa magetsi, waya umayatsa zojambulazo.

Aluminiyamu ya pansi osakanizidwa ndi okusakaniza ndi chitsulo china (chitsulo, chromium, calcium) imatenga mpweya kuchokera pamenepo, ndikubwezeretsanso chitsulo. Ma osakaniza a aluminium okhala ndi ma iron iron oxide amatchedwa termite. Kutentha kwamoto kwa osakaniza kumeneku ndikwambiri kwambiri, chifukwa chake chigwa chimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwotcha njanji, chitsulo ndi zinthu zachitsulo. Iwo ali ndi mabomba osakwanira ndi zipolopolo zojambula.

Kutha kwa aluminiyamu kutulutsa kutentha kwakukulu kuphatikizidwa ndi okosijeni kunakhazikitsa ngati maziko a njira yatsopano yosungunulira yachitsulo - aluminiothermy.

Njira za aluminiothermy zidapezeka ndikupeza zasayansi ndi NN Beketov pafupifupi zaka zana zapitazo. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyi, afala kwambiri m'maiko onse apadziko lapansi. Pazitsulo zamakono, aluminiothermy imagwiritsidwa ntchito osati kungosungunulira zitsulo, komanso kutsitsa zitsulo zotulutsa kuchokera ku ores - vanadium, molybdenum, manganese.


Nthawi yopumira: Jan-07-2020